Republic Day 2023 How Many Years

Republic Day 2023 – Republic Day 2023: India to celebrate its 74th Republic Day on 26th January 2023. On this day, the Constitution of India was adopted in the year 1950. Republic Day is one of the most important National Holidays in India which is also known as Gantantra Diwas.26th January 1950 makes the establishment of the Indian Constitution was prepared by the members of the Constituent Assembly which emerged after the brutal colonial past.

Republic Day is celebrated every year throughout the nation with great fervor and enthusiasm. This year too, Republic Day 2023 will be celebrated with events like parades, cultural programs, rallies, etc. There will be several colorful events on the Kartavya Path including military parades and other activities.

In these activities, school children also take part and showcase their talents. Republic Day Celebrations 2023 begins in New Delhi

How old is the oldest republic?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The location of San Marino An enlargeable map of the Most Serene Republic of San Marino The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to San Marino: San Marino – small sovereign country located in the Apennine Mountains on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe,

  1. San Marino is a landlocked enclave, surrounded by Italy,
  2. One of the European microstates, San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe and the 3rd highest GDP per capita in the world.
  3. San Marino claims to be the oldest constitutional republic in the world, founded on 3 September 301, by Marinus of Rab, a Christian stonemason fleeing the religious persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian,

San Marino’s constitution, dating back to 1600, is the world’s oldest written constitution still in effect.

What important day is celebrated on January 25 every year in India?

Theme for this year’s NVD is ‘Nothing Like Voting, I Vote for Sure’ – Posted On: 24 JAN 2023 3:50PM by PIB Delhi Election Commission of India is celebrating 13th National Voters’ Day on 25th January 2023. Hon’ble President of India Smt. Droupadi Murmu will be the Chief Guest at the national function being organized in New Delhi by the Election Commission of India.

Union Minister for Law and Justice, Shri Kiren Rijiju will grace the function as Guest of Honour. The theme for this year’s NVD, ‘ Nothing Like Voting, I Vote for Sure’ is dedicated to voters which conveys individual’s feeling and aspiration towards participation in the electoral process through power of their vote.

The logo is designed to showcase festivity and inclusivity of the electoral process. Ashoka Chakra in the background represents the largest democracy of the world, whereas the inked finger represents participation of each and every voter of the country. During the event in New Delhi, the Hon’ble President will present the National Awards for the year 2022, National Awards for the Best Electoral Practices will be presented to State and District level officers for their outstanding performance in the conduct of elections during 2022 in different spheres such as IT initiatives, Security Management, Election Management, Accessible Election, Electoral Roll and contribution in the field of voter awareness and outreach.

National Awards will also be given to important stakeholders like government departments and media organizations for their valuable contribution towards voters’ awareness. A first copy of the ECI Publication ‘Electing the First President- An illustrated Chronicle of India’s Presidential Elections’ will be presented to the Hon’ble President by Chief Election Commissioner Shri Rajiv Kumar.

The book, which is the first of its kind publication, gives glimpses into the historic journey of Presidential Elections in the country. It throws light on the nuances of the Presidential Electoral system and associated constitutional provisions through the timelines of the past 16 Presidential elections.

An ECI song- “Main Bharat Hoon- Hum Bharat Ke Matdata Hain” produced by ECI in association with Subhash Ghai Foundation, will also be screened. The song brings forth the power of vote and celebrates the spirit of inclusive, accessible, ethical, participative and festive elections in the largest and most vibrant democracy of the world.

Since 2011, National Voters’ Day has been celebrated on January 25 every year, all across the country to mark the foundation day of the Election Commission of India, i.e.25th January 1950. The main purpose of the NVD celebration is to create electoral awareness amongst citizens and encourage them to participate in the electoral process.

  1. Dedicated to the voters of the country, the National Voters’ Day is also used to facilitate enrolment of voters, specially the newly eligible young voters.
  2. New voters are felicitated and handed over their Elector Photo Identity Card (EPIC) in the NVD functions held across the country.
  3. NVD is celebrated at the national, state, district, constituency and polling booth levels, which makes it one of the largest celebrations in the country.

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Can you fly another flag next to the American flag?

Can a flag that has covered a casket be displayed after its original use? There are no provisions in the Flag Code to suggest otherwise. It would be a fitting tribute to the memory of the deceased veteran and his or her service to a grateful nation if the casket flag is displayed.

  1. Can the U.S.
  2. Flag be displayed in inclement weather? The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, with the exception of an all-weather (nylon or other non-absorbent material) flag.
  3. However, most flags are made of all-weather materials.
  4. What is the significance of displaying the flag at half-staff? This gesture is a sign to indicate the nation mourns the death of an individual(s), such as death of the president or former president, vice president, Supreme Court justice, member of Congress, secretary of an executive or military department, etc.

Only the president or a state governor may order the flag to be displayed at half-staff. The honor and reverence accorded this solemn act is quickly becoming eroded by those individuals and agencies that display the flag at half-staff on inappropriate occasions without proper authority to do so.

To be notified when the flag is to be displayed at half-staff, sign up for the Flag Alert e-newsletter at, When the flag is not flown from a staff, how should it be displayed? It should be displayed vertically, whether indoors or out, and suspended so that its folds fall free as though the flag were staffed.

The stripes may be displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, and the union should be uppermost and to the flag’s own right (that is, to the observer’s left). When displayed in a window of a home or a place of business, the flag should be displayed in the same way (that is, with the union or blue field to the left of the observer in the street).

  1. How are unserviceable flags destroyed? The Flag Code suggests that when a flag has served its useful purpose, “it should be destroyed, preferably by burning.” For individual citizens, this should be done discreetly so the act of destruction is not perceived as a protest or desecration.
  2. Many American Legion posts conduct disposal of unserviceable flag ceremonies on June 14, Flag Day.

Such ceremonies are particularly dignified and solemn occasions for the retirement of unserviceable flags. To find an American Legion post near you to assist with dignified disposal, visit Find a Post (, Can the flag be washed or dry-cleaned? Yes.

  • No provisions of the Flag Code prohibit such care.
  • The decision to wash or dry-clean would depend on the material.
  • Are you required to destroy the flag if it touches the ground? The Flag Code states that the flag should not touch anything beneath it, including the ground.
  • This is stated to indicate that care should be exercised in the handling of the flag, to protect it from becoming soiled or damaged.

You are not required to destroy the flag when this happens. As long as the flag remains suitable for display, even if washing or dry-cleaning is required, you may continue to display the flag as a symbol of our great country. What is the proper method for folding the flag? The Flag Code does not require any specific method.

  1. However, a tradition of folding has developed over time that produces a triangular-shaped form, like that of a three-corner hat with only the blue union showing.
  2. To learn more about folding a flag, visit American Flag-Folding Procedures | The American Legion May a person, other than a veteran, have his or her casket draped with the flag of the United States? Yes.

Although this honor is usually reserved for veterans or highly regarded state and national figures, the Flag Code does not prohibit this use. What is the significance of the gold fringe seen on some U.S. flags? Records indicate that fringe was first used on the flag as early as 1835.

It was not until 1895 that it was officially added to the national flag for all Army regiments. For civilian use, fringe is not required as an integral part of the flag, nor can its use be said to constitute an unauthorized addition to the design prescribed by statute. Fringe is used as an honorable enrichment only.

What is meant by the flag’s own right? The “right” as the position of honor developed from the time when the right hand was the “weapon hand” or “point of danger.” The right hand, raised without a weapon, was a sign of peace. The right hand, to any observer, is the observer’s left.

  1. Therefore, as used in the Flag Code, the flag and/or blue field is displayed to the observer’s left, which is the flag’s “own right.” Is it proper to fly the U.S.
  2. Flag at night? The Flag Code states it is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings and on stationary flag staffs in the open.
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However, when a patriotic effect is desired, the flag may be displayed 24 hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of darkness. The American Legion interprets “proper illumination” as a light specifically placed to illuminate the flag (preferred) or having a light source sufficient to illuminate the flag so it is recognizable as such by the casual observer.

What should be the position of the flag when displayed from a staff in a church, public auditorium or other public meeting place, whether indoors or outdoors, on platform, or on the floor at ground level? When used on a speaker’s platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be displayed above and behind the speaker.

When displayed from a staff in a church, public auditorium or meeting place, the flag should hold the position of superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the clergyman’s or speaker’s right as he faces the audience.

Prior to the Flag Code changes in 1976, the display procedure was somewhat different. Now, the staffed flag should always be placed to the right of the speaker (observer’s left) without regard to a platform or floor level. What are the penalties for the physical desecration of the flag? There are currently no penalties for the physical desecration of the flag.

The American Legion and other members of the Citizens Flag Alliance continue working toward securing a constitutional amendment to protect the flag from physical desecration. Can the U.S. flag be used in advertising? The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner whatsoever.

  • Our organization places emphasis of its interpretation and opinion upon the U.S.
  • Flag Code’s very specific language of “never” and “in any manner whatsoever” when considering use of the flag, or image of the flag, in association with advertising purposes.
  • Those having concern with interpretation of this section of the U.S.

Flag Code might instead consider opting for use of stars and stripes, as well as red, white, and blue colors, to convey a patriotic tone instead using a pattern of the flag. Can synthetic flags be burned as a means of dignified disposal? Section 8, paragraph (k) of the U.S.

  1. Flag Code states, “The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning.” This does include flags made of nylon and synthetic materials.
  2. The vast majority of United States flags displayed today are made of nylon or polyester materials, which are inherently difficult to dispose of by burning.

Federal, state, and local governmental agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency have legitimate concerns when it comes to the burning of these unserviceable flags because of the harmful and hazardous gasses emitted. Burying, although a tradition, is certainly not recommended for nylon/synthetic flags either, as they are not biodegradable.

Options for consideration is contacting and developing an arrangement with a trash disposal service that has an incinerator which can burn these flags at a very high temperature (who is already licensed to burn synthetic materials) and who will allow or facilitate conducting a dignified disposal of those flags.

Or from time-to-time funeral homes will take in flags to be cremated at high temperature with the body of a veteran in a dignified manner, so we also suggest seeking to develop an arrangement with funeral homes to see if they will take these flags in.

  • Additionally, we suggest checking with your local city or county attorney, or state attorney general’s office, to inquire about local laws and disposal availability they use for their local state or municipality flags.
  • How should small graveside flags be retired? The U.S.
  • Flag Code states that when a flag is no longer serviceable, for example, torn, worn, tattered, frayed, faded, etc., it is no longer a fitting emblem for display.

We recommend you consult and coordinate with the management of the cemetery to obtain guidelines they might have specific to their cemetery regarding procedures for placement and retrieval of graveside flags – every cemetery operates under different sets of guidelines and policies.

  • May I wear flag clothing? It is the longstanding opinion of the Americanism Commission of The American Legion that it is acceptable to wear clothing that has an image of the American flag on it if that garment has not been made using an actual U.S.
  • Flag as the textile.
  • It is The American Legion’s opinion that, with few exceptions, the U.S.

Flag Code pertains only to an actual flag. Early on in our campaign to protect the flag from physical desecration, Congress agreed in 1989 that the term “flag of the United States” means “any FLAG of the United States, or any part thereof, made of any substance, of any size, in a form that is commonly displayed.” A shirt, necktie, hair band, etc., with the likeness of a flag, is not a form commonly displayed as any sort of flag.

  • Many Americans simply want to express their patriotism and love of country by wearing an article of clothing or an item that has an image of the flag imprinted upon it.
  • You should note that there are those who have differing opinions than that of The American Legion, so we are not able to say if you will offend anyone or not.

What about other types of flags? Are they acceptable? Our area of expertise is about the care and display of the national flag of the United States that is defined in Presidential Executive Order (E.O.) No.10834, August 24, 1959.E.O No.10834, Part 1 (Design of the flag), Section 1 states, “The flag of the United States shall have thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white, and a union consisting of white stars on a field of blue.” As such, our organization will no longer take any position or offer any other comment about any other flag other than the U.S.

United States flag (first mentioned in precedence in U.S. Flag Code) State flag (next in order of precedence per U.S. Flag Code) City / county / locality flag (next in order of precedence per U.S. Flag Code) (following those mentioned above in the U.S. Flag Code are “pennants of societies”, aka flags of organizations or “organizational flags”. The U.S. Flag Code offers no specific hierarchy for precedence of display among any specific organizational flags) POW/MIA flag (organizational flag – first organizational flag of precedence IAW National Security Commission guidance/opinion; high honor as an organizational flag due to the symbolism it represents) U.S. Army (organizational flag) U.S. Marine Corps (organizational flag) U.S. Navy (organizational flag) U.S. Air Force (organizational flag) U.S. Space Force (organizational flag) U.S. Coast Guard (organizational flag) American Legion (organizational flag)

May I display multiple flags? Multiple flags may be displayed from the same flagpole. Other flags displayed with the U.S. flag may be of approximately equal size but may not be larger, and no other flag may fly above the flag of the United States. The U.S.

How old is India country?

India is 7th oldest country in the world: Do you know which is the oldest? As per the review, India’s earliest known government was founded in 2000 BCE. But, the question arises in mind about who is the oldest? Updated Jan 19, 2023 | 01:06 PM IST Representational image (source: Pixabay) New Delhi : According to a list by the (WPR), is the seventh by date of earliest known organized government. As per the review, India’s earliest known government was founded in 2000 BCE. But, the question arises in mind about who is the oldest? In the list by WPR, Iran has been considered as the in the world.

  1. Iran – 3200 BCE
  2. Egypt – 3100 BCE
  3. Vietnam – 2879 BCE
  4. Armenia – 2492 BCE
  5. North Korea – 2333 BCE
  6. China – 2070 BCE
  7. India – 2000 BCE
  8. Georgia – 1300 BCE
  9. Israel – 1300 BCE
  10. Sudan – 1070 BCE
  11. Afghanistan – 678 BCE
  • Meanwhile, on the basis of the date of self-sovereignty, Japan is the oldest country in the world, followed by China, France and others.
  • Using a different criterion, the following nations are listed as the oldest in the world by date of self-sovereignty by World Population Review:
  1. Japan – 660 BCE
  2. China – 221 BCE
  3. San Marino – 301 CE
  4. France – 843 CE
  5. Austria – 976 CE
  6. Denmark – sometime in the 10th century CE
  7. Hungary – 1001 CE
  8. Portugal – 1143 CE
  9. Mongolia – 1206 CE
  10. Thailand – 1238 CE

End of Article © 2023 Bennett, Coleman & Company Limited : India is 7th oldest country in the world: Do you know which is the oldest?

What will happen in 2050 in India?

Environment predictions for India in 2050 – Environment related predictions to impact India in 2050 include:

Portions of northern India experience heat waves that cross the 35-degree wet-bulb survivability threshold. Likelihood: 60 percent 1 The number of people living in regions with high risks of experiencing deadly heatwaves reaches 310-480 million. Likelihood: 60 percent 1 A massive drought hits India, leaving roughly five million people without any water. Likelihood: 80% 1 Rising sea levels in India brings floods to India, particularly the West Bengal and coastal Odisha regions, affecting or displacing ~31 million people. Likelihood: 80% 1 India generates 75% of its overall electricity from renewable energy. Of this, 34% comes from solar energy and 32% from wind energy. Likelihood: 70% 1

Who was the king of India?

Who was the first king of India? If you have ever heard of Chandragupta Maurya, then you know the answer. The first king of India was Chandragupta Maurya. He was the founder of the Maurya Empire, which was one of the largest empires in ancient India. He conquered much of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Chandragupta was a great military leader and an able administrator. Let us learn more about Chandragupta Maurya in this article. The great ruler Chandragupta Maurya, who founded Maurya Dynasty was indisputably the first king of India, as he not only won almost all the fragmented kingdoms in ancient India but also combined them into a large empire, boundaries of which were even extended to Afghanistan and towards the edge of Persia.

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Chandragupta Maurya was born around 340BC in Patliputra in Magadh, the region which is currently known as Bihar. He was only 20 years old when he founded Maurya Dynasty in Magadh with the help of great economist, scholar, philosopher and a learned Brahmin Chanakya.

  1. In fact, it was Chanakya who discovered Chandragupta Maurya in Vinjha Forest.
  2. Chanakya wanted to take revenge from Dhana Nand, the King of the then ruling Nanda Dynasty of Magadh.
  3. Chanakya was in the search of a young warrior who could help him eliminate Nanda Empire as the King Dhana Nand had once insulted him badly due to his ugly looks.

On his orders, the soldiers of Dhana Nand had even forcefully thrown Chanakya out of his assembly. To fulfil his aim, Chanakya mentored and trained Chandragupta Maurya in different war skills. Simultaneously he also taught him humanities, crafts and all the political lessons required for becoming a powerful ruler.

Later in the year 322 BC, Chandragupta Maurya successfully raised a strong army with the help of Chanakya and eliminated the empire of Dhana Nand and established Maurya Dynasty in Magadh. Chandragupta Maurya ruled till 298 BC and during his regime, he transformed Maurya Dynasty into a large empire by winning almost all the kingdoms ruling across the country and bringing them together under its wide umbrella.

Further, he started his annexation drive and expanded the boundaries of Maurya Empire to encompass Bengal, Assam, Kashmir, Deccan Plateau in South India to far away Afghanistan, Baluchistan till the edge of eastern Persia. We can classify the life and major achievements of the great emperor Chandragupta Maurya as following: Conquest of Nanda Dynasty Born with natural leadership talent, the courageous Chandragupta Maurya had a unique alluring personality which caught the attention of Chanakya, the kingmaker.

  • Together they raised a huge army and attacked Nanda Empire and eliminated it successfully.
  • It is said that in his first attempt Chandragupta Maurya remained unsuccessful; however, in the second attempt he successfully captured Patliputra, the capital of Nanda Empire in Magadh and established Maurya Dynasty.

Liberation from Greek rule Soon after conquering Magadh, he sensed a hidden protest of the people against the Greek rule in the north-west, where currently the Punjab and Sindh are located. Chandragupta took advantage of the emerging discontents and waged war against the Greek Satraps, ruling in those areas after the death of Alexander.

The growing conflicts among the Greek generals also helped him in assuring victory and he became successful in capturing the entire north-west region and established his rule over there. Annexation of Afghanistan and Indus Valley State After winning the north-west frontiers with the help of a huge army he moved towards the Indus Valley states known currently as Afghanistan, Eastern Persia, etc.

The entire Indus Valley region along with eastern Persia was under the control of Greek Satrap Seleucus Nicator. Seleucus initially fought a fierce battle with Mauryan army; however, he was defeated soon. To establish peace in the region, Seleucus signed a treaty with Maurya Empire and also married his daughter with Chandragupta Maurya.

  1. In this way finally, the entire Indus Valley states came under the rule of Maurya Dynasty.
  2. Recognition as King of India Concurrently with Afghanistan annexation, he captured Hindu Kush region, Iran as well as parts of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
  3. Back home, he extended his empire further by concurring Saurashtra, Kathiawar in western India.

Simultaneously he established his rule in Deccan Plateau as well in South India. Chandragupta even captured Avanti and its capital Ujjain as well as Konkan region in Maharashtra of west India, thus he established a vast empire. To effectively control his dynasty he provided central administration from his capital Patliputra and eventually earned recognition as King of India.

  • Strong Administration With his control over a vast empire of different states, Chandragupta Maurya in a way gave political unity to the entire Indian subcontinent which resulted in a long era of peace and prosperity.
  • He established a strong administration that was governed according to the guidance provided by the council of ministers lead by Chanakya.

The extensive empire under Mauryan rule was divided into several provinces, the administration of which was the responsibility of the local governors, or the royal princes, just like Viceroys. Chandragupta Maurya administration had also designated various departments to look after important matters concerning his government.

  • Every department had elaborate functions and duties to perform.
  • In his dynasty, there was a separate department for construction that contributed extensively to infrastructure development and building trade routes.
  • There are several pieces of evidence which also suggest construction of irrigation reservoirs and creation of food supply network Chandragupta Maurya administration for civilian population as well as Mauryan Army.

In all, his administration had sufficient arrangements that helped him develop a large number of centres for producing different goods and moreover, the Mauryans had even started mining in this era. Functional Judicial System The establishment of a functional judicial administration was another landmark achievement of Chandragupta Maurya.

As a great ruler, he made the administration of justice in his empire through a judicial system in which the King was the highest authority to appeal. The judicial system also had provisions for severe punishments and so a peaceful rule of law got successfully established in Maurya Dynasty during his rule.

In every village, he created smaller courts with a strong dispute redressal mechanism. Just like the elected head of a village in India today called Sarpanch, there were designated headmen who had to look after the disputes and provide immediate solutions in villages.

If we refer the famous book ‘Arthsastra’ written by Chanakya, there were total twenty-six departments under the administration of different ministers of Chandragupta Maurya. These included Kosta, Mudra, Ganika, Hasti, and Suvarna to name a few among others. In a nutshell, the Indian subcontinent witnessed all-round development, strong administration and the rule of law during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya.

FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions Who was the first Muslim King of India? Ans: The first ruler of Delhi Sultanate, Qutobudding Aibek, who established Ghulam Dynasty (Slave Dynasty) which is also known as Mamulk Dynasty was the first Muslim King of India.

Who was the first Hindu King of India? Ans: Chandragupta Maurya, who established Maurya Dynasty and ruled almost the entire India, was the first Hindu King of India. However, if epics are to be believed, according to Mahabharata, the ancient Sanskrit epic, Bharat, the son of King Dushyant and Shakuntala was the first Hindu King of India.

Who was the first king/rular of Ancient India? Ans: Chandragupta Maurya was the first king/ruler of Ancient India. Who was the first king of ancient India to open veterinary hospital ? Ans: Emperor Ashoka was the first king of Ancient India who erected the first veterinary hospital.

  1. Who were the first king and queen of India? Ans: Chandragupta Maurya and his wife Durdhara were the first king and queen of India.
  2. Who was the first Brahmin king of India? Ans: Pushyabhuti Shung who established Shung Dynasty was the first Brahmin King of India.
  3. Who was the first British ruler of India? Ans: Queen Victoria was the first British ruler of India.

Who was considered to be the first ruler of India? Ans: Chandragupta Maurya was the first ruler of India. Who was the first ruler of imperial India during the classical period? Ans: Chandragupta Maurya. Who was the first native ruler of India to accept subsidiary alliance? Ans: The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first native ruler of India to accept subsidiary alliance in the year 1798AD.

Which is the oldest country in Europe?

Masque of Thracian ruler Teres 480-440 BC Photo: Veneta Nikolova Bulgaria is among the European countries with the richest history. In terms of its cultural and historical heritage, Bulgaria is high in the European ranking. With more than 40,000 cultural monuments, Bulgaria places right after Italy, Greece and Turkey. Earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe found in Bulgarian cave In the spring of 2020, during excavations in Bulgaria’s Bacho Kiro cave near Dryanovo, a team of Bulgarian and foreign archaeologists came across a sensational finding-animal bones, tools made of stone and bones, beads and pendants, and remains of human fossils which date to 45,000- 47,000 years ago.

These are the earliest remains of Homo sapiens discovered on the territory of Europe. The new findings are evidence that in that period, the Homo sapiens settled in this part of the continent and began living together with the Neanderthals. Until recently, the traces of Homo sapiens discovered in the Romanian cave Pestera Muierii, which date to 41,000 years ago, were considered the oldest in Europe.

The oldest processed gold in Europe and the world In 1972, archaeologists came across an ancient necropolis near the coastal city Varna containing the oldest processed gold in the world. More than 3,000 golden items weighing more than 6 kilograms were discovered during the excavations.

The exquisitely made artefacts date back to the beginning of the 4 th century BC and are associated with the so-called Chalcolithic culture in the region/ part of which is Solnitsata (The Saltworks) near Provadia- regarded as the oldest one in Europe.

The oldest continuously inhabited city in Europe The history of the city of Plovdiv began more than 8,000 years ago. Life in Plovdiv has continued for centuries-from the Prehistoric period to the present day. According to researchers, this is the oldest town in Europe, where life has never stopped. The oldest country in Europe Bulgaria is the oldest country in Europe and the only country that has not changed its name since it was first established. In the 7 th century AD, the Proto- Bulgarians led by Khan Asparuh crossed the Danube River and in 681, they established their own state south of the Danube.

The First Bulgarian Empire reached its cultural and territorial apogee in the early 10 th century. It had a great influence on the European nations through its unique literary schools and literature. The oldest autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in Europe The Bulgarian Orthodox Church has been an autocephalous Orthodox jurisdiction since 879.

In 927, the Patriarchate of Constantinople recognized the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and acknowledged its patriarchal dignity. The Bulgarian Patriarchate precedes the autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church by 662 years and the autocephaly of the Serbian Orthodox church by 292 years. Photos: Veneta Nikolova English version: Kostadin Atanasov Listen to the daily news from Bulgaria presented in “Bulgaria Today” podcast, available in Spotify.

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What is the smallest republic in Europe?

#1 Vatican City, 0.44 km ² – Vatican City is not only the smallest country in Europe (or, if we’re being technical the smallest sovereign ‘city-state’) but also the smallest country in the world. Located in the very heart of the ancient city of Rome, Vatican City is best known for being the seat of the Pope.

What is the oldest republic in Europe?

San Marino was founded more than 17 centuries ago, making it the oldest republic in the world. In addition, it is also the smallest European state.301 : San Marino was founded by Dalmatian Masons who fled from the Roman Empire in an attempt to evade religious persecution by Emperor Diocletian.

When did the republic period start?

Roman Forum – The Roman Forum was a place where public meetings were held, legal issues were debated, and gladiators fought in combat. Robert Harding Picture Library The Roman Republic describes the period in which the city-state of Rome existed as a republican government, from 509 B.C.E. to 27 B.C.E. Rome’s republican government is one of the earliest examples of representative democracy in the world. Prior to the republic, Etruscan kings who lived nearby in central Italy ruled Rome.

  1. Once the last of these kings was overthrown in 509 B.C.E., Rome’s wealthiest citizens established a republican government by creating various assemblies of Roman citizens.
  2. These assemblies decided important matters for the city on behalf of its population.
  3. The early republican Senate clearly held a bias towards the interests of the wealthiest citizens.

After all, only members of the patrician class could hold office. Therefore, the plebeians, who made up the majority of the soldiers in the Roman army, staged protests outside the city walls. This conflict led to the establishment of other legislative bodies, such as the Concilium Plebis or Council of Plebs, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comita Tributa or the tribal assemblies.

In the Council of Plebs and tribal assemblies, laws would be passed based on the discussion of important issues that took place in the Senate. There, senators recommended which policies to implement. The Senate and assemblies worked together to appoint executive officials called magistrates, enacted laws, and sought to increase Rome’s territorial holdings throughout the Italian peninsula.

The Republic began to engage in wars with its neighboring rivals, slowly eliminating threats to its superiority in the Mediterranean. By the first century B.C.E., the Roman Republic stood alone as the dominant power in the Mediterranean region. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.

What republic lasted the longest?

Introduction – Many lists have been written about the most long-lived empires or states in the history of mankind and oddly enough nobody seems to agree on the ranking. That is because it depends on how one counts. For example:

  • a) Shall we consider only empires or also kingdoms and republics ? The longest-lived form of government ever is the Republic of Venice, which lasted for exactly 1,100 years. But that was neither a kingdom nor strictly speaking an empire (although it could be considered a commercial empire).
  • b) Do we count only uninterrupted forms of governments or can there be brief interludes or changes of government ? The Kingdom of England has so far lasted for 936 years, but was interrupted by 11 years of republic under Cromwell between 1649 and 1660. Additionally the form of government changed from absolute to constitutional monarchy.
  • c) Do we only look at the name of the empire or should the capital and original homeland be maintained through its history ? The Roman Empire is often claimed to have lasted from 27 BCE to 1453 CE, but these were actually two entities that shared little in common. The original Roman Empire was based in Rome with Latin as its official language, while the Eastern Roman Empire was based in Constantinople and had Greek as its official language. Personally I consider them as distinct, though related empires. Additionally the Eastern Roman Empire was dissolved between 1204 and 1261 when it was replaced by the much smaller Latin Empire. Many would regard the Holy Roman Empire as the true successor of the Western Roman Empire, as it also included Rome and was to a large extent Latin-speaking among its ruling elite.
  • d) How about counting uninterrupted states, which might have changed name or form of government? Rome is the obvious example, having started as a kingdom, evolved into a republic then an empire. In that sense the Roman state lasted for nearly 1,000 years without cultural or linguistic interruption. Using this logic the longest lasting empire ever is Japan, which has existed as an empire for over 2600 years if we count legendary emperors, and still 1743 years and counting if we start from the first historical emperor. Japan however changed many times forms of government (absolute monarchy, shogunate, constitutional monarchy) and moved its capital four times since the establishment of the first permanent capital in Nara in 710.

I will make several ranking considering all these factors and various possible combinations.

What is the definition of a republic?

republic, form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body. Modern republics are founded on the idea that sovereignty rests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category of the people has varied across history.

Because citizens do not govern the state themselves but through representatives, republics may be distinguished from direct democracy, though modern representative democracies are by and large republics. The term republic may also be applied to any form of government in which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch,

Prior to the 17th century, the term was used to designate any state, with the exception of tyrannical regimes. Derived from the Latin expression res publica (“the public thing”), the category of republic could encompass not only democratic states but also oligarchies, aristocracies, and monarchies, More From Britannica democracy: Democracy or republic? During the 17th and 18th centuries, the meaning of republic shifted with the growing resistance to absolutist regimes and their upheaval in a series of wars and revolutions, from the Eighty Years’ War ( 1568–1648) to the American Revolution (1775–83) and the French Revolution (1787–89).

Shaped by those events, the term republic came to designate a form of government in which the leader is periodically appointed under a constitution, in contrast to hereditary monarchies. Despite its democratic implications, the term was claimed in the 20th century by states whose leadership enjoyed more power than most traditional monarchs, including military dictatorships such as the Republic of Chile under Augusto Pinochet and totalitarian regimes such as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,

André Munro

How do you wish for 74th Republic Day?

74th Republic Day 2023 Wishes Images, Messages, Greetings, Status & Quotes

With respect in our minds and strength in our hearts, we remember the freedom fighters those who made this Republic Day possible. Happy Indian Republic Day 2023! On this Republic Day, let us take a pledge to honour our motherland and work for her betterment. Happy Republic Day 2023, May we take India’s name to greater places than the past and build the very best nation for our future generation. Best wishes for the country.Let us promise to strive for equality for all our brothers and sisters on Republic Day. May we all live in peace and harmony as we work together for the betterment of our motherland.Let’s salute the sacrifices made by freedom fighters and soldiers who made us realize the dream of an independent and unified India. Happy 74th Republic Day of India !May we always have freedom to choose, freedom to live and freedom to dreamOn this Republic Day, let us take a moment to remember the freedom fighters and the visionaries who made this day a reality. Because of them, billions of Indians have enjoyed independence and all the blessings it brings.You have given us enough freedom to flourish ourselves in this professional world. Thank you. Happy Republic Day 2022,May Republic Day infuse each and every heart with great spirits and love for the country. Best wishes to the country and you on this special occasion.On the glorious occasion of Republic Day, let us all promise ourselves to always be responsible and promising citizens of our nation.My heart swells with pride for my country as I wish you a Happy Republic Day!May this Republic Day fill your heart with pride in our great nation.On our 74th Republic Day of India, I hope for a land where knowledge is free and the head is held high. Happy Republic Day!”Every Indian should now forget that he is a Rajput, a Sikh, or a Jat. He must remember that her is an Indian” – Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel”Freedom is not given, its taken” – Subhash Chandra Bose”A nation’s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people.” – Mahatma Gandhi”The love of one’s country is a splendid thing. But why should love stop at the border?” – Pablo Casals”Democracy means simply the bludgeoning of the people by the people for the people.” – Oscar Wilde”It is the love of country that has lighted and that keeps glowing the holy fire of patriotism.” – J. Horace Mcfarland”The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.” – Confucius

: 74th Republic Day 2023 Wishes Images, Messages, Greetings, Status & Quotes

Arjun Patel